Vitamin Glossary

Arginine becomes nitric oxide (a blood vessel-widening agent called a vasodilator) in the body. Early evidence suggests that arginine may help treat medical conditions that improve with increased vasodilation, such as chest pain, clogged arteries, heart disease, heart failure, erectile dysfunction, peripheral vascular disease, and headaches from blood vessel swelling. Arginine also triggers the body to make protein and has been studied for healing wounds, bodybuilding, enhancing sperm production, and preventing tissue wasting in people with critical illnesses.

Choline is a vitamin-like nutrient that helps export accumulating fats in the liver and helps prevent liver damage. It is needed for the synthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter, which helps maintain cell membranes, transmit nerve impulses, process fat and cholesterol, and perform other tasks.

Cyanocobalamin is the man-made form of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 helps your body use fat and carbohydrates for energy and make new proteins. It is also important for normal blood, cells, and nerves.

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (the building block of protein) in the body. The body can make enough glutamine for its regular needs, but extreme stress (the kind you would experience after very heavy exercise or an injury) may cause your body to need more glutamine than it can make. Most glutamine is stored in muscles. Glutamine is important for removing excess ammonia (a common waste product in the body). It also helps your immune system function and appears to be needed for normal brain function and digestion.

Glutathione is an antioxidant that is contained within our bodies and acts as a buffer for any harmful toxins, chemicals, or damaged cells that are introduced. Luckily, the body is capable of producing its own glutathione, which keeps the body healthy and functioning properly. Glutathione can be depleted rather quickly if a person is sick, has been working out hard, drinking, or smoking, which can lead to more illness. In fact, when people have an illness or disease, they also are low in glutathione, which can then lead to additional health issues.

Glutathione has been used in treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome, heart disease, cancer, chronic infections, autoimmune disease, diabetes, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, arthritis, asthma, kidney problems, liver disease, fertility, and more. In fact, glutathione is so powerful that it is used regularly to combat the negative radiation effects of chemotherapy!

Another benefit to glutathione is muscle recovery in athletes and those leading active lifestyles. Several studies have shown that test subjects supplementing glutathione had an increase in lean muscle mass over control groups that did not add glutathione. While not considered a testosterone booster, glutathione is a powerful antioxidant, and very intense workouts or fitness routines can cause stress in the body. Presumably, the increased glutathione removes the damage and free radicals caused by the workout, which speeds up the body’s ability to heal and rebuild muscle.

Inositol is a B vitamin and plays a role in nerve transmission and fat metabolism. Inositol works at the cellular level and is thought to prevent the formation of cancer and may even shrink preexisting cancers. Inositol helps lower cholesterol levels.

Isoleucine is also an essential amino acid that you cannot produce on your own. Dietary proteins are a source of this amino acid as well, including eggs, seaweed, fish, and many seeds. Isoleucine is an important amino acid as it assists your body in the utilization of ketone bodies and fatty acids. This is a critical process of fat mobilization and utilization. A deficit of this amino acid can not only limit your ability to mobilize fat but also cause cerebral dysfunction.

L-carnitine is an amino acid that is found in nearly all cells of the body. L-carnitine plays a critical role in the production of energy from long-chain fatty acids. In addition, it increases the activity of certain nerve cells in the central nervous system.

L-citrulline is used as a sports performance and cardiovascular health supplement. L-citrulline supplementation results in reduced fatigue and improved endurance for both aerobic and anaerobic prolonged exercise. There is not enough evidence to support the claim that L-citrulline supplementation improves power output during exercise.

Leucine is an essential amino acid that cannot be manufactured in the body. Leucine is used as a dietary supplement because it has been found to slow the breakdown of muscle tissue by increasing the synthesis of muscle proteins.

L-proline is one of the twenty amino acids used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. It is a non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons.

Lysine is an essential amino acid. Lysine has antiviral effects by competing with arginine, which promotes HSV replication. This may help prevent outbreaks of cold sores and genital herpes. Some studies suggest that lysine may make bone-building cells more active and may enhance the production of collagen.

Methionine is an amino acid. It acts as a lipotropic agent (to speed up the removal of fat within the liver) to prevent problems of the skin and nails. It works as an antioxidant through a conversion process to L-cysteine to help neutralize toxins.

NAC or N-acetyl cysteine comes from the amino acid L-cysteine. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. N-acetyl cysteine is also used for preventing liver damage; protecting against environmental pollutants, including carbon monoxide, chloroform, urethanes, and certain herbicides; for reducing the toxicity of ifosfamide and doxorubicin, drugs that are used for cancer treatment; as a hangover remedy; for preventing kidney damage due to certain X-ray dyes; and for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate) is a coenzyme that is produced by our body and is involved in making energy in the body. NADH can be used to improve mental clarity, alertness & memory. NADH may be beneficial in improving athletic endurance/ fatigue and possibly improve the cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer’s.

Niacinamide (B3) is effective and relatively safe for treating high cholesterol levels. Limited evidence shows that niacin may help with clogged arteries and heart disease.

Ornithine has an anti-fatigue effect by increasing the efficiency of energy consumption and promoting the excretion of ammonia. L-ornithine is a free amino acid and is not richly found in meats or fish. So, it is difficult to obtain amounts of L-ornithine from ordinary meals that would be sufficient to promote the anti-fatigue effect. We recommend L-ornithine intake as a nutritional supplement in cases of physical fatigue.

Pantothenic acid (B5), also known as Dexpanthenol, is critical to the manufacture of red blood cells, as well as stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands. Vitamin B5 is also important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract, helps the body use other vitamins, and synthesizes cholesterol.

Pyridoxine (B6) is a water-soluble vitamin. Vitamin B6 is critical for protein metabolism, energy production, and normal nervous system function. It is involved in nearly 60 enzyme systems in the body, necessary for normal growth, red blood cell synthesis, and vitamin B12 absorption.

Riboflavin (B2) is known for increasing energy levels, boosting immune system function, maintaining healthy hair, skin, mucous membranes, and nails, slowing aging, boosting athletic performance, and promoting healthy reproductive function.

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is a natural part of the human diet. This amino acid is also an antioxidant and plays a key role in many biological processes, such as detoxification, regulation of nerve-cell activity, preservation of eyesight, and may improve heart health.

Thiamine (B1) is involved in many body functions, including the nervous system and muscle function, the flow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells, digestion, and carbohydrate metabolism.

Valine — Foods high in valine include eggs, elk, seaweed, soy, and watercress. Valine has shown some effect on brain chemistry, which may affect performance, according to a 2001 study published in the “International Journal of Sports Medicine.” Valine, like the other branched-chain amino acids, can be broken down and converted to glycogen for use as fuel. This occurs primarily when your carbohydrate stores are low or your diet is deficient in specific proteins and amino acids.

Vitamin B12 is a vital water-soluble nutrient critical for maintaining normal functioning nerve cells. Vitamin B12 is also referred to as the energy vitamin since it will provide an energy boost after injection as well as increase metabolism. Vitamin B12 is used in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins and is required for fatty acid synthesis.

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) injection — Cyanocobalamin is the man-made form of vitamin B-12. Vitamin B12 helps your body use fat and carbohydrates for energy and make new proteins. It is also important for normal blood, cells, and nerves.

Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) injection — Methylcobalamin is the purer, naturally occurring form of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 helps your body use fat and carbohydrates for energy and make new proteins. It is also important for normal blood, cells, and nerves.

Vitamin D-3 injectable — Research has shown that certain levels of vitamin D can actually help determine or predict the chance of your weight loss success when following a low-calorie diet program. Vitamin D is known to be beneficial or crucial for the absorption of calcium & phosphorus, which helps develop and maintain healthy bones. Studies have also shown that people with better vitamin D levels have better mental function in their older years, along with healthier body weight.